Introduction: As an organization, the French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan is aware of the fact that we cannot please everyone with the terms used to refer to individuals or to groups of people who lived in North America prior to the arrival of Europeans. The preferred terms depend on a number of factors, including by not limited to, the following: 1. official names adopted by members of these Tribes, Nations, or People; 2. the terms used by the United States or Canadian Governments; 3. the occupations of people who discuss them, such as historians, anthropologists, ethnologists, archeologists, and individual authors. These terms have not only evolved over time, but they are subject to great controversy and discussion.
Further complicating the issue, the terms used in contemporaneous historical and parish records varied widely depending on the author, the parish priest, and the time period. See the article below Native Americans - a Quick Reference and Research Guide for brief, representative lists of the terms used during the 17th century. Finally, to design a website that prominently features one group versus another would not be practical, to say nothing of discriminating against another group.
The Relationships between French Canadians and Native Americans: The Library of Congress' France in America website contains short articles which explain their relationships. Their relationships contrast greatly with the treatment that the Native Americans received from the British and the Americans. See: http://international.loc.gov/intldl/fiahtml/fiatheme3.html#track1
The Dictionary of Canadian Biographies’ Introductory Chapter The Indians of Northeastern North America: http://www.biographi.ca/en/theme_essays.html?p=2
Links to Wikipedia articles: Although the bibliography listed below and the books listed in the column on the right were written by experts, we understand that some people prefer fast answers to questions. Therefore, we are providing links to Wikipedia articles. Most of these articles contain histories and links to other articles or lists of Nations or Tribes organized by State or Province. The histories are usually broken down into time periods such as pre-European contact, the French Regime, British Regime, and American or Canadian Governments; reading the histories are vital to understanding the history and culture of a particular Tribe or Nation.
United States: List of Federally Recognized Tribes by State:
Canada: Aboriginal peoples in Canada:
Land Ceded by Michigan’s Native Americans: A map of the land ceded by Michigan’s Native Americans is available from the Clark Historical Library at Central Michigan University. Below the map is a list of the Treaties with links to the text of the Treaties: https://www.cmich.edu/library/clarke/ResearchResources/Native_American_Material/Treaty_Rights/Text_of_Michigan_Related_Treaties/Pages/Map-of-Treaty-Cessions.aspx
Supreme Court of Canada Cases:
Daniel v. Canada:
In this case which was decided 14 April 2016, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Metis and non-status Indians are “Indians” and existing laws burden the federal government of fiduciary duty to them and an obligation to negotiate or consult on their rights. See: http://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/15858/index.do
Reports from Statistics Canada:
Home Page for Statistics Canada. Links at the bottom of the page allow you to browse by subject: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/start-debut-eng.html
Aboriginal Statistics at a Glance – 2nd Edition (24 December 2015): http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-645-x/89-645-x2015001-eng.htm
Aboriginal Peoples: Fact Sheet for Canada (3 November 2015): http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-656-x/89-656-x2015001-eng.htm
Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: First Nations People, Métis and Inuit (8 May 2013): http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-011-x/99-011-x2011001-eng.cfm PDF Version: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-011-x/99-011-x2011001-eng.pdf
First Nations, Métis and Inuit Women (26 July 2011): http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11442-eng.htm PDF Version: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11442-eng.pdf
Reports on the Canadian Residential School System:
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s 15 December 2015 statement on the release of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada’s Final Report: http://pm.gc.ca/eng/news/2015/12/15/statement-prime-minister-release-final-report-truth-and-reconciliation-commission
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada’s Final Report published on 15 December 2015: http://www.trc.ca/websites/trcinstitution/index.php?p=890
The Aboriginal Healing Foundation’s Research Series report published in 2006: Métis History and Experience and Residential Schools in Canada: http://www.ahf.ca/downloads/metiseweb.pdf
Articles and Bibliographies:
United States' Laws and Treaties: The Oklahoma State University Library has placed the text of Charles J. Kappler's Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties online.. See: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/index.htm. While digitized books are available from companies and organizations such as the HathiTrust, Google Books, and Archive.org, the contents, indexing, and search functions available from the Oklahoma State University Library may be easier for research purposes. For example, for each volume, researchers can find a list of treaties by Tribe or Year with the links to the text of the treaties as well as links to digitized page images. In addition to reading the treaties themselves, the individuals named in the treaties can be useful for genealogical purposes. For example, French Canadians often acted as interpreters for the United States or the Tribes or Nations that were parties to the treaties; their roles as interpreters can provide you with occupational iinformation regarding your ancestors. For those who are searching for a potential Native Ancestor, the treaties or the signatories to the treaties may contain clues. For example, many treaties contain names of individuals with French Canadian or European surnames. This often indicates descent from a Native American and French Canadian or American. In other cases, the treaty mentions specific grants that were made to individuals; the grants may even include genealogical information such as the name of one of his or her parents.
United State Censuses: See the following link for resources at the National Archives: http://www.archives.gov/research/census/native-americans/1790-1930.html The census images are available from Ancestry.com. Readers are reminded that you can access Ancestry.com at many public libraries and Family History Centers.
French Canadian and Native Familes: See our French Canadian and Native Families' page for articles, bibliographies, and guidelines for searching Native ancestry.
17th Century Timelines - See our History of New France Page and the timelines that can be viewed or downloaded in PDF format. These timelines document the most important events in the 17th century history of New France in the Great Lakes, Mississippi Valley, and Hudson Bay, including the history of New France's relations with its Native Allies and Enemies, as well as documenting the relationships among the Native Nations or Tribes.
E Books regarding Native Americans available to Michigan Residents through MeL (Michigan's E Library) (http://www.mel.org/index.php)
Choose MeL Databases, then e-books. In the advanced search box, typing the author's surname will provide you with a link to the books below.
Michigan's E Library offers dozens of books for all ages that discuss Native Americans in detail. In addition to the books listed in the Bibliography for Researching Native Americans in the left column, the following books can also help with your research.
Atlas: Helen Hornbeck Tanner, Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press: 1987).
Encyclopedia: Frederick E. Hoxie, Encyclopedia of North American Indians (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Co., 1996).
Native American Tribes who Lived in Michigan during the Historic Period (after contact with Europeans):
Bert Anson, The Miami Indians (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999).
Emund Jefferson Danziger, The Chippewas of Lake Superior (Norman Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990).
R. David Edmonds, The Potawatomis - Keepers of the Fire (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978).
William Armstrong - Portrait of an Indian Woman - Courtesy of Artefacts Canada: http://www.rcip-chin.gc.ca/artefacts/index-eng.jsp
Paul Kane - circa 1850 oil - Indian Encampment on Georgian Bay - Available from Available from Library and Archives Canada (LAC) (http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/lac-bac/search/arch_adv), Mikan #2837008
George Catlin, La-dóo-ke-a, Buffalo Bull, a Grand Pawnee Warrior – Courtesy of the Smithsonian: http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=3945
William Armstrong – circa 1860 – Indian Encampment – Available from Library and Archives Canada (LAC), (http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/lac-bac/search/arch_adv ) Mikan #2833413